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PSSA ANCHORS - S.8.D.1 Geologic Processes

ASSESSMENT ANCHOR
S8.D.1 Earth Features and Processes that Change Earth and Its ResourcesELIGIBLE CONTENT
S8.D.1.1 Describe constructive and destructive natural processes that form different geologic structures and resources.Reference: 3.5.7.A, 4.4.7.B
S8.D.1.1.2 Describe natural processes that change Earth’s surface (e.g., landslides, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, mountain building, new land being formed, weathering, erosion, sedimentation, soil formation).
S8.D.1.1.4 Explain how fossils provide evidence about plants and animals that once lived throughout Pennsylvania’s history (e.g., fossils provide evidence of different environments).



Ch. 12, Sect. 3: Earth's Interior
earth_layers.jpg


GEOLOGIC TIME - Ch. 21, Sect. 4
timescale.png geotimelime.gif


CHECK YOURSELF ~ Relative Dating (which is older than which?) of Rock Layers Practice Questions:

Figure 1time_inc.gif.................. Figure 2time_ang_unc.gif

FIGURE 1
1) Which rock layer is older, C or A?
2) Which rule of relative dating led you to your answer in #1?
3) Put rock layers D, A, and E in order from youngest to oldest according to the rule of cross-cutting relations.
4) What happened to the rest of layers C and D at the top?
5) What letter represents a dike?

FIGURE 2
6) According to superposition, put the top horizontal rock layers gray, green, beige, and pink in order from oldest to youngest.
7) According to the rule of original horizontality, which layer is older, the red or the dark blue?
7.5) According to the rule of original horizontality, which layer is older, the purple or the white?
8) at the bottom of which colored layer is there an erosional unconformity?

Geologic Time
9) Which ERA is known as "middle life" and marks the "time of the dinosaurs"?
10) Which EON are we in currently?
11) Which ERA boasts the "rise of the large mammals" and means "recent life"?
12) What ERA prefix means "old" or "ancient" and is used because?
13) K-T extinction occurs where?
14) How have fossils changed as we look at them from Ordovician time to Cenozoic Time?
15) What is a fossil?



Virtual Dino Dig: http://paleobiology.si.edu/dinosaurs/interactives/dig/main.html
1) What Museum sponsors this virtual dig?
2) Define paleobiology:
3) In 1891, where was this dig discovered?
4) What period and era do the fossils hail from?
5) How long ago did the organisms live?
6) What is the Morrison Formation?
7) Sketch a rock pick.
8) Sketch a rock hammer and chisel.
9) How is a paintbrush used in archaeology?
10) What is the genus of the dinosaur you uncovered?
11) How do paleobiologists protect the fossil for transport?
12) What is our specimen number?
13) What is an air scribe?
14) What is a composite skeleton?
15) What is an index fossil?
16-20) ABSOLUTE DATING: Look up methods of absolute dating and describe how the ideas of isotopes, radioactive decay, and half-life are each used by scientists to approximate the numerical age of rock layers/fossils.(5 pts)

HOW FOSSILS FORM
fosssm.gif
http://www.boscobel.k12.wi.us/~schnrich/dating_fossils.htm

FOSSIL EVIDENCE
http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078685540/164155/00076703.html

What is a fossil? the remains or evidence of previous life preserved in Earth materials

TYPES OF FOSSILIZATION

CastMold560.jpeg


1) mold - the fossilized depression left in a rock layer (like the handprint ashtray) [seen left in the picture]





2) cast - when a mold fills in with minerals and sediments and forms the "braille"-like filling of that mold (example-pouring wax into the handprint and then removing the wax cast) [seen on the right side in the picture]







insectinamber.jpg


3) original preserve - a whole or part of an organism that has been preserved and unchanged (ex. mammoth in ice, insect in amber sap) [entire mosquito trapped in amber at the left]














4) altered parts - when the original parts of an organism are replaced with minerals and preserved (petrified wood and shark teeth are examples)

pcs_shark_teeth.jpg













Fossil Kits Lab

http://fossilsforkids.com/Now_and_Then.html

NUMBER & SKETCH OF THE FOSSIL
NAME OF THE FOSSIL/ORGANISM
and Kingdom/Phylum/Class
ERA and /or PERIOD
LOCATION OF FIND
SKETCH OF THE ORGANISM
WHEN IT WAS ALIVE
TYPE OF FOSSILIZATION
ex. #1 wasp.jpg
wasp,
Kingdom Animalia,
Phylum Arthropoda,
Class Insecta
Eocene Epoch,
Paleogene Period,
Cenozoic Era
Florissant Fossil
Beds National Monumen

Mold in sedimentary rock












Check YourselfC



























































































































































FOSSILS Virtual Lab

How can fossil and rock data determine when an organism lived?

2/3/2012 CHECK YOURSELF QUESTIONS ~ ON GEOLOGIC TIME AND FOSSIL EVIDENCE
1) Write a statement comparing the ages of Universe, Earth, and multicellular life on Earth.
2) Put the appearance of each of these types of organisms in the fossil record in order from oldest(first to appear) to newest(most recent):
a) first amphibians
b) first mammals
c) dinosaurs
d) first fishes
e) first reptiles
f) first humans
g) first bacteria
h) trilobytes

3) The idea that the Earth processes that shaped the past are the same processes that shape Earth today is used to predict things about previous times in geologic history. This concept "the present is the key to the past" is termed what in geology?
4) The top layer of Earth's crustal surface is constantly being eroded and redeposited elsewhere. This causes a covering over of the surface and over millions of years that surface gets buried. The idea that no matter what happens later, those layers are formed horizontally on the surface is called the rule of what?
5) The idea that as we see deeper and deeper layers of rock, we see older and older rock layers laid further and further ago in geologic time is called the rule of what?
6) If rock layers are discovered vertically in the ground, what must hav happened after they were formed and how do we determine their relative ages?
7) How do radioactive isotopes in matter help to ABSOLUTE date rocks and fossils?
8) What type of fossil is a woolly mammoth frozen in ice?
9) What type of fossil is the hollowed depression imprint of a dinosaur footprint?
10) What type of fossil is petrified excrement (poop)?
11) Santa shaped jello is like a fossil ----------- made in the Santa mold.
12) A hot magma layer cuts up across a bunch of layers of rock laid above it, then later cools down to for rock. What rule says that the cutting magma is younger than the layers it cuts into?
13) Read Green Book Life Science p. 189 - 197 answer 1-4 on p. 197 Sect. 3 Assessment

When you finish, define these terms for your next section: subduction, sea floor spreading, Pangaea, Alfred Wegner, Harry Hess, Continental Drift, MidOcean Ridge, Rift Valley, Convection Zone

http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/6554637/plate_tectonicsWordle: plate tectonics
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<a href="http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/6554637/plate_tectonics"
title="Wordle: plate tectonics"><img
src="http://www.wordle.net/thumb/wrdl/6554637/plate_tectonics"
alt="Wordle: plate tectonics"
style="padding:4px;border:1px solid #ddd"></a>

Ch. 12, Sect. 1 : THE CRUST - PLATE TECTONICS: Alfred Wegner's Hypothesis

CONTINENTAL DRIFT & PANGAEA
http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/platetectonics/4.php

EVIDENCE OF THE CONTINENTAL DRIFT THEORY


puzzle

1) Puzzle Piece Continental Boundaries









FossilFit.jpg




2) Common Fossils on Coasts of Different Continents











E12C2_2.gif






3) Common Rock Layers on Coasts of Different Continents












PROPOSED CHANGES OF THE PLATES OVER TIME

Pangaea.gif

What are the Tectonic Plates?

Plate tectonics: The main features are:

  • The Earth's surface is made up of a series of large plates (like pieces of a giant jigsaw puzzle).
  • These plates are in constant motion travelling at a few centimetres per year.
  • The ocean floors are continually moving, spreading from the centre and sinking at the edges.
  • Convection currents beneath the plates move the plates in different directions.
  • The source of heat driving the convection currents is radioactive decay which is happening deep in the Earth.

  • REMEMBER THE OCEANS SIT ON TOP OF THE PLATES, THE CONTINENTS ARE NOT PLATES

Plate_boundaries.gif


plate-tectonics.jpg

Sea Floor Spreading
http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/platetectonics/4.php

CHECK YOURSELF:
1) How do sea floor spreading and subduction combine to make the idea of plate tectonics and drift possible? (be sure to explain each of these 2 processes in your answer)
2) Do problem under APPLYING math on page 357 of your Blue Book. (show work)
3) What are convection currents in the mantle, how are they formed and what do the cause to happen to the crust above them?
4) Which layer of Earth is characterized by being a liquid molten layer of iron, nickel, and other heavy elements?
5) Which layer of Earth is characterized by being a solid hot ball of iron and nickel?
6) What does the spinning of the iron core cause to form, from pole to pole around our planet?
7) What layer of Earth is characterized by a THICK layer of silly putty-like molten rock?
8) Why is it improper to call the continent the tectonic plates?
9) Who proposed continental drift and when?
10) What are three pieces of evidence that supported the theory of continental drift?
11) How does a theory in science differ from one in just regular every day talk?
12) In the skinny red EARTH MATERIALS AND PROCESSES book, do page 101, sect. 1 self check review 1-4; page 104 sect. 2 review 1-4

SEA FLOOR SPREADING RATES LAB (p. 105 in skinny red EARTH MATERIALS AND PROCESSES book)



Plate Boundary Types Depicted Below
  1. A. Divergent
  2. B. Convergent
  3. C. Transform
plates.gif

fig13.gif


Redbook Ch. 5/Bluebook Ch. 12, Sect. 2 - EARTHQUAKES http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/

VOCAB:
fault, focus, epicenter, origin, footwall, hanging wall, seismic, seismograph, primary waves, secondary waves, surface waves, lithosphere, magnitude, tsunami, Richter Scale, Mercalli Scale,

FAULTS
Faults are fractures in the crust, usually found along plate boundaries.

The three different stresses upon the srust reult in fractures of three different types:
a) tension stress - normal fault - hanging wall slides down/footwall slides up
b) compression stress - reverse fault - hanging wall slides up/footwall slides down
c) torsion (twist) stress - strike slip fault - ground moves past itself

Illustrated below are the 3 fault types:
FaultType.jpg

WAVES
Tim & Moby
http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078685540/161383/00053404.html
http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0078685540/164155/00053410.html

seismic_waves.gif
Understanding waves Waves

P-waves are compressional or longitudinal waves; they are the first to arrive at remote distances as they travel fastest, can pass through liquid or solid Earth, and are minimally damaging.
Lwave.gif
Longitudinal-Wave.gif


S-waves are transverse waves; they are the second to arrive at remote distances as they travel slower, cannot pass through liquid, and are more damaging.
Twave.gif

wave_amp.jpg

seismicb.gif

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/kids/

volcano.gif

V O L C A N O E S Redbook Ch. 6 / Bluebook Ch . 12, Sect. 4
vocab: volcano, shield, cinder cone, composite cone, eruption, tephra, caldera, viscosity, vent, parasite cone,
hot spot, magma, lava, batholith, dike, sill, pahoehoe, A'a, pyroclastic flow.

INTERACTIVE SUMMARY OF VOLCANOES
http://www.learner.org/interactives/volcanoes/

http://kids.discovery.com/games/build-play/volcano-explorer

Viscosity of Lava-
-Gas- -Content-
-Eruption Type-
-Volcano Type-
-example-























3 Major Cone Types
volcanos.gif

BILL NYE: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oTFX8Gn9K-c

Lava Types
Virtual Lab: Lava Composition vs. Eruption Type
http://glencoe.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0078617499/student_view0/chapter6/virtual_lab.html
http://dsc.discovery.com/convergence/pompeii/interactive/interactive.html


EXAM Tuesday Plate Tectonics

1) What is an earthquake, how do they occur and where are they most likely to occur?


2) How does plate tectonics play a role in earthquakes and volcanism?

3) Know how different stress on rock causes different fault types.

4) Know the wave types that come from quakes and be sure to understand how a seismograph reading can work to help us determine where exactly the epicenter of a quakes is located.

5) Know all vocab terms from both Chapters.

6) What is a volcano, why do they occur and where are they likely to occur?

7) What are the differences in cone types?

8) Know the anatomy of a volcano.

9) How does lava composition affect eruption type?

10) What are the products of an eruption?

11) What constructive formations occur in/on the Earth due to volcanism?